Fards in Wuzoo
THERE ARE FOUR FARA'ID (MANDATORY ACTS) IN AN ABLUTION.
1-To wash the face once.
2-To wash the two arms together with the elbows once.
3-To apply masah on the one-fourth of the head, that is, to rub a wet hand softly on it.
4-To wash the feet, together with the ankle-bones on the side once.
Sunnats in Ablution
There are eighteen Sunnats in an ablution.
1-To recite "Bismillah" before the making the ablution.
2-To wash the hands including the wrists three times.
3-To rinse the mouth three times by using new water each time. This is called madmada.
4-To wash both nostrils three times, taking fresh water each time. This is called istinshaq.
5-To wet the invisible parts of the skin under the eyebrows, the beard and the mustache. It is fard to wash their exterior surfaces. If the hairs are scarce and the skin can be seen, it will be fard to wet and wash the skin.
6-To wet the section under the two eyebrows when washing the face.
7-To apply the masah on the hanging part of the beard.
8-To comb (taklil) the hanging part of the beard with the wetted fingers of the right hands.
9-To rub and clean the teeth with something.
10-To apply masah (to wipe) both ears once.
11-to apply masah on the neck once with three adjacent fingers of both hands.
12-to wash (takhlil ) between the fingers and the toes, the little fingers of the left hand is inserted between the toes from under them in successions,beginning with the little toe of the right foot and, after finishing with the right foot, carrying on with big toe of the foot.
13-To apply masah on the whole head once.
14-To wash every limb three times which is to be washed. At each washing every part of the limb must be moistened. It is sunnat not to pour water three times but to wash it completely three times. It is makruh to wash more than three times.
15-To intend through the heart to get reward when beginning the Wudu.
16-Tartib. In other words, to wash the two hands, the mouth, the nostrils, the face, the arms, then apply masah on the head, and not to change this order.
17-Dalk, to rub the limbs washed.
18-Muwalat, to wash the limbs one right after another quickly.
Mustahabbats in Ablution
There are twenty-eight twenty-eight mustahabbats in an ablution.
In this context adab means something which causes blessings when done but incurs no sin if committed.
1- To make an ablution before it is time for Salaat.
2-If the private parts have not been smeared with najasat (impurity); it is an adab to wash them with water. If the najasat (impurity) is less than one dirham [which is equal to one mithqal: four grams and eighty centigrams], it is sunnat to wash. If one has been smeared with one dirham of it, it is wajib, and if more than that it is fard to wash.
3-To wipe oneself dry with a piece of cloth after washing. If there is no cloth one must wipe with one's hand.
4-To cover oneself right after the cleaning is completed.
5-Not to ask for help from anybody, but to perform the ablution by oneself. If one pours water for one without being asked, it will be permissible.
6-To turn towards the qibla when making an ablution.
7-Not to talk while making an ablution.
8-To recite the kalmia-i-shahadat while washing each limb.
9-To recite the prescribed prayers (du'a) of ablution.
10-To put water in the mouth with the right hand.
11-To put water in the nose with the right and to clean the nose with the left hand.
12-When washing the mouth, rinse it if not fasting.
13-When washing the nostrils, to draw the water almost up to the bone.
14-When applying masah on the ears, insert each little finger into each earhole, respectively.
15-To use the little finger of the left hand when washing between the toes when inserting from the lower sides of them.
16-To shift the ring when washing the hands. It is necessary and fard to shift a tight ring.
17-Not to waste water though it may be plentiful.
18-Not to use little water so as to appear rubbing with oil. During each the three washing, at least two drops of water must fall from the place washed.
19-After using a container for ablution, to leave the container full of water so that the other may use it.
20-To recite the prayer (du'a ) "ALLAHUMMAJ'ALNI MINATTAWWABIN….."after or during the ablution.
21-To make an ablution though one has an ablution. In other words, after performing one namaz, renew your ablution for the next namaz.
22-To clean the inner corner of the eyes and clear away the dried mucus in the eyelids when washing the face.
23-When washing the face, the arms and the feet, wash a little more than the compulsory amount. When washing the arms, we must fill our palm with water and then pour it towards the elbow.
24-When performing an ablution, do not let the water used splash back on the body, the cloths, etc.
25-To wash the face with both hands.
26-To put the water container on the right side. While performing an ablution.
27-When washing the foot, start from the fingers.
28-To perform two rak'at [cycle] salaat after an ablution, which is called "THAHEEYA-TUL-WUDU".
Prohibitions in Wazoo
There are ten prohibitions in performing an ablution
1-When relieving one or urinating in the toilet or outdoors, one should not turn one's front or back towards the Qibla. It is makruh also to stretch one's feet towards the Qibla or the Quran. If the Quran is above one it will not be makruh.
2-It is haram to open one's private parts near someone in order to make taharat.
3-One should not make taharat with one's right hand.
4-When there is no water, it is makruh to make taharat (to clean oneself ) with food products, manure,bones,animals food,coal,someone else's property,reeds,leaves. Instead of that should have "Tayammum".
5-One must not spit or throw mucus into the pool where one makes an ablution.
6-One should not wash one's limbs of ablution much more or less than the prescribed limit, nor wash them more or less than three times.
7-While washing the face, one must not splash the water on one's face, but pour it from the upper forehead downwards.
8-One must not blow on or over the surface of the water.
9-One must not close one's mouth and eyes tightly. If even a tiny part of the outward part of the lips or the eyelids is left dry, the ablution will not be acceptable.
10-One must not make masah on one's head, ears or neck more than once after moistening the hands each time. But it can be repeated with moistening the hands again.